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Today’s Vadodara, the former capital of the princely Gaekwad State, has a long and tumultuous history. The name “Vadodara” has been derived from the profusion of Banyan or “Vad” trees in the area – a settlement in the embrace of Vad trees. The city has been marked by the presence of the Gujarat Sultanate rulers, the Moghuls, the Maratha Gaekwads and the British, who have left their imprints on the architectural and cultural development of the city, sinking in deep roots like the Banyan Tree itself and bravely withstanding the onslaught of time.
The past is always interesting and the past of a princely state is often intriguing as well. The earliest settlements of what is present-day Vadodara date back to more than 2000 years. This settlement was then called Ankotakka (present-day Akota area) that developed as a riverine settlement on the banks of the Vishwamitri river (3rd BC to 500 AD). Ankotakka grew up in the Bhimnath temple complex in Sayaji Gunj. Vatapatraka developed as its eastern suburb (500-900 AD) on a higher elevation, which is present-day Kothi area. Archeological excavations at Akota which threw up the magnificent horde of what came to be classified as the Akota Bronzes (presently in the Baroda Museum) are irrefutable evidence of this theory. Frequent flooding of the Vishwamitri, which flows close to Akota, shrank the importance of Ankotakka, giving rise to Vatapadraka whose elevation became its strength. Vatapadraka grew to be a large urban agglomeration with the elevated Kothi area at its centre.
When Gujarat was taken over by the Gujarat Sultanate rulers, and Mehmud Begda shifted the capital from Ahmedabad to Champaner, Vatapadraka village, on the outskirts of the vast Champaner, was strategically seen as in the line of its defense. This led to the building of Killa-e-Daulatabad (about 1511, which makes 2015 the city’s 505th anniversary year), the walled city with Mandvi pavilion at its center and the four Darwazas – Leheripura Gate, Champaner Gate, Panigate, Gendigate – linked by a strong, high Wall. Daulatabad was built by Sultan Muzaffar, the son of Mehmud Begda who had established Champaner as the capital of Gujarat in 1482. Daulatabad developed away from Vatapadraka, and as a fortified ‘walled’ city with the blessings of the powerful Gujarat Sultanate, attracted people who made it their home.
The Marathas annexed the region in 1720. Because of the clusters of the vast, huge and hoary banyan trees in the area, the Gaekwads named the place ‘Badode’ which in Marathi meant a banyan cluster. (Incidentally, Vadodara also had a vast number of sandalwood trees which had led to it once being called Chandanvati! That’s another story, though!) Pilajirao and Damajirao Gaekwad are believed to have stayed for a while at the Bhadra Palace, the Muslim Governor’s citadel outside the Panigate, before they moved to what is now the Sayaji School in Mandvi (near the Tankshal) while their own palace, the Sarkarwada, was being built near Mandvi pavilion. The remnants of Sarkarwada, once a beautiful wooden Maratha Wada, still exist, while the wondrous Nazar Baug Palace, built in the European Neo-Classical tradition by the now wealthy Gaekwads just behind the Sarkarwada, has unfortunately bitten the dust.
In the meanwhile, the British had already come to Badode (1802). They anglicized it to ‘Baroda’. (In Hindi, it became Badauda and the local Gujaratis called it Vadodara.) The first British Residency and Military Contingent was first stationed within the walls of Kothi, and the influence of European architecture can be seen in the design of the present Kothi Kacheri and the Records Tower complex opposite it. By 1835, however, the Residency moved away from Kothi to the northwest of the city (present-day M S University’s office complex opposite the Polytechnic). This was a segregated settlement with a cantonment — the Residency Bungalow in the Neo-Classical style, surrounded by the Camp, which is what the Fatehgunj area was also known as. The Railway chugged into Baroda in 1859 and a Civil station came up between the British settlement and Badoda ‘city’. It quietly laid the foundation to modern industrialization.
The period 1860 to 1940 was an epoch of unprecedented and phenomenal development Vadodara. Sayajirao III, who led this transformation, was crowned the Maharaja in 1875. The Baroda College building (Faculty of Arts) was planned along the road to the Station (1879), and the vast Kamati Baug (renamed Sayaji Baug) along the road to the Camp. Sir T Madhav Rao, one of the most dynamic Dewans that Baroda State had, engaged Robert Chisholm for the design of institutional buildings in 1880. In 1886, the first institutional building designed by Chisholm was the Anglo-Vernacular School for Boys (presently the Faculty of Performing Arts/Music College). Between 1885-90, Ajwa, the artificial water reservoir was created 16 miles away with a filtration plant halfway at Nimeta as a part of the comprehensive waterworks scheme to ensure safe drinking water for Vadodara’s citizens. Nyaya Mandir, with a legal system of justice, was designed and built between 1892-96. The fabulous Laxmi Vilas, the new palace designed away from the hustle and bustle of the city, amidst rolling meadows and woods, in the tradition of European royalty continues to be home to the present Gaekwad family.
Today, Vadodara (renamed thus in the 1970s) is a cosmopolitan, tier-two city, also selected to be a ‘Smart City’ from a bunch of fast-growing cities by the Indian Government. Over the last so many centuries, the city has seen many ups and downs, but unlike any other city anywhere in the world, it has a strange ability to hold on to its residents and continuously gather those wandering away again and again into its fold! Once a Barodian, always a Barodian!
The people of Vadodara will celebrate their People’s Heritage Festival from November 18 to 26, this year.
I. Exhibitions: A series of Exhibitions are being organized all over the city to showcase the various kinds of heritage that Vadodara has supported, promoted and sustained over the years.
- The World of Vishwamitri. This is an exciting and informative exhibition of photographs that documents the seasonal Vishwamitri river that has its source in the Pavagadh hill and snakes its way through the heart of Vadodara city before it meets the Dhadhar river and flows into the Gulf of Khambhat. In the 25 kms that the river flows through Vadodara, it is populated by more than 400 muggers (river crocodiles) – there is even an old crocodile sculpture on the banks under the bridge near the Kala Ghoda – that acknowledges the river as the home of these muggers since many, many years. Even though the Vishwamitri is little more than a gutter for most of the year, heavy monsoons can turn it into a ravaging force, smashing into the otherwise dry nallahs and canals, formed and protected in earlier years, to catch and channelise the overflow. But, once upon a time, it must have been a lovely, perhaps even holy, clear ribbon of water which was spanned by several bridges (the bridge near Kala Ghoda was built by Ahmed Shah who established Ahmedabad), on whose banks several temples were built, as were the Chattris of the dead Gaekwad rulers, crowned by the many varieties of slender palms … Artist, conservator and Gaekwadi historian Chandrashekhar Patil has put together this exhibition that documents the invaluable heritage that still stands along the banks of our only river and explains eloquently why all of us should pledge to save this natural and built heritage. Venue: Splatter Studio, Productivity Road, opp. Navjivan Hospital Dates: Saturday, November 18, inauguration at 11.30 am. Open every day till Friday, November 24. Time: 4 to 7.30 pm. Entry: Free.
For details/inquiries, contact Chandrashekhar Patil: 98243 72414. A Heritage Trust event.
- Pothina Paan: An Exhibition of Manuscripts from the Oriental Institute. This is an Exhibition of hand-written manuscripts in Pali, Sanskrit, Devnagri, Tibetan, Buddhist, Jain, South Indian languages, written on various materials such as tamrapatra, palm leaf, bhojpatra, handmade paper, wood, textile, bamboo. Several kinds of inks and writing instruments will also be on show as will be the Tamra patra that establish the name Vadapadraka (present day Kothi area) as an early name of Vadodara. Venue: Oriental Institute, The M S University of Baroda, Opp. Palace Gate, Palace Road. Dates: November 20-24. Time: 12:00 noon to 5:00 pm. Entry: Free. For details/inquiries, contact Dr. Shweta Prajapati 9898472669
- Exhibition on well-known Baroda Wrestler, Shri Vasantrao Kaptan: This is a small but exciting exhibition of photographs and other objects related to the legendary sportsman, Vasantrao Kaptan, who lived and worked in Baroda. The exhibition itself is housed in a heritage ‘house on wheels’ which goes back to the 1900’s ‘travelling police Chowkis’ pulled by bullocks introduced by Sayajirao! Venue: Gujarat Krida Mandal, Polo Ground, Baroda. Dates: November 20-22. Inauguration with Kalabhavan Heritage Walk at 7 am on Monday, November 20. Timings: 6:00 to 8:00 pm, every day.
Live demonstrations of traditional Kho kho, and other sports. Entry: Free. For details / inquiries, contact Shri Karandikar, 9825300484
- All About Teeth, Dr. Chandarana Dental Museum: Perhaps one of its kind in the entire world, dentist Dr. Chandarana’s Dental Museum in Baroda opened two years back to much applause and interest. School groups welcome. Venue: 22, Haribhakti Extension, Off Old Padra Road, Race Course, Vadodara (entry from lane opp. Malhar Point). Dates: November 18-25. Sunday closed. Timings: 9:00 to 11:00 am & 4: 00 to 6:00 pm. Entry: Free. For details/inquiries, contact 9408818885.
- A Passion for the Past: An exhibition of amazing objects and antiques that is the personal collection of gallerist Hitesh Rana, to be shared with the public for the first time. Venue: Sarjan Art Gallery, Hobby Centre, behind Alkapuri Petrol Pump, Vishwas Colony, R C Dutt Road. Dates: November 18-26, Sunday closed. Time: 12 noon to 7 pm, every day. Entry: Free. Hitesh Rana: 98240 06612
- The Parsi Chronicles: Udvada and Navsari: An exhibition of evocative photographs of the Parsi community, the videshi Gujaratis, by amateur photographer Homiyar Tavadia. Navsari was a part of the larger Baroda Gaekwad kingdom and there was a strong connection between the Parsis and the Gaekwads. Dadabhai Naoroji started his public life in Baroda as the Dewan to Maharaja Sayajirao in 1874. Will be inaugurated by Shri Baman R. Cama, President, Shree Parsi Panchayat, Vadodara, at 5.30 pm on Sunday, November 19. Will continue between 4 and 8 pm on November 21 and 22 also. Venue: Nazar Art Gallery, opp. the Parsi Agiari, Sayaji Gunj. Entry free. A Heritage Trust event.
- A Tale of Two Cities – Baroda and Champaner, former capitals of strong kingdoms, dotted with architectural marvels, and replete with fantastical stories. Exhibition of photographs and jewellery and textiles inspired by the stone carvings on Champaner monuments. Also available on sale the portfolio, “The Magnificent Indo-Saracenic Architecture of Baroda”. Venue: Rahul Gajjar’s studio, 203, Mangaldhara, behind Ivory Terrace, above San’s Sizzlers Restaurant, Sampatrao Colony, Alkapuri. Dates: November 18-26, 4 to 8 pm. Entry free.
- Calligraphy and its Tools: Ink pots, Quills, Nib Pens – all instruments popular before the age of the ball point pen! This Exhibition will have a display of Calligraphy Tools, supported by live demonstration by Manish Soni. Venue: Chameli Baug, Wing A, Alumni House, besides University Guest House, Opp. Kamati Baug Water Tank, University Road. Dates: November 20-24. Timings: 10:30 am to 6:00 pm. Entry free. Contact Manish Soni on 9998977590.
- Baroda State Medals and Envelopes Exhibition: This will be a rare exhibition of old Baroda State Medals and Envelopes, collected diligently by Vinod Shah. Venue: Chameli Baug, Wing A, Alumni House, besides University Guest House, Opp. Kamati Baug Water Tank, University Road. Dates: November 20-24. Timings: 10:30 am to 6:00 pm. Entry free. Contact Vinod Shah on 9898069822.
- Baroda 360 degrees: Heritage ally Krishna Shah with a passion for history and photography has taken some wonderful panoramic pictures of the heritage buildings of Baroda. There will also be a demonstration of how these pictures were taken. This exhibition is a treat to see! Venue: Chameli Baug, Wing A, Alumni House, besides University Guest House, Opp. Kamati Baug Water Tank, University Road. Dates: November 20-24. Timings: 10:30 am to 6:00 pm. Entry free. Krishna Shah, 9898069822.
- The Gem of Baroda: Fine Arts Faculty alumnus Jhunnurain Pathan’s fabulous personal collection of rare and colourful gemstones and minerals will be on show for the first time during this Festival. Venue: Chameli Baug, Wing A, Alumni House, besides University Guest House, Opp. Kamati Baug Water Tank, University Road. Dates: November 20-24. Timings: 10:30 am to 6:00 pm. Entry free.
- Coins of Indian Princely States: Harshad Kadia’s collection of coins from across the numerous Indian Princely States documents the history of coin design, minting processes and the different metals used. Venue: Chameli Baug, Wing A, Alumni House, besides University Guest House, Opp. Kamati Baug Water Tank, University Road. Dates: November 20-24. Timings: 10:30 am to 6:00 pm. Entry free.
- Dinosaurs of Gujarat: Environmentalist and author Neelkamal Shah will share the photographs of the ten dinosaurs believed to have roamed Gujarat. But most importantly, there will also be images of the Rajasaurus Narmadensis, also popularly known as Narmadasaurus, whose skeletal remains have been found in India, and confirmed by National Geographic palaeontologist Paul Sereno who identified this new species, named Rajasaurus Narmadensis. The exhibition will also display images and information about site locations, fossil excavation, and so on. Venue: Chameli Baug, Wing A, Alumni House, besides University Guest House, Opp. Kamati Baug Water Tank, University Road. Dates: November 20-24. Timings: 10:30 am to 6:00 pm. Entry free.
- Baroda City Plants: What were the plants that were native to Baroda since centuries? And what are the new ones which have made Baroda their home? Parthi Shah and her group have put together an interesting exhibition on this theme. Venue: Chameli Baug, Wing A, Alumni House, besides University Guest House, Opp. Kamati Baug Water Tank, University Road. Dates: November 20-24. Timings: 10:30 am to 6:00 pm. Entry free. Parthi Shah 9601318645
- Baroda Short Film Festival: There are many persons who have made short films on certain places, events, activities, that have captured the spirit of Baroda. Chirayu Pandit, Tushar Vyas, Chandrashekhar Patil are some of them. There may be many more. We offer you a platform to share your film (no matter how short it is) during this Festival. Please contact Chandrashekhar Patil if you would like your film to be included. Venue: Chameli Baug, Wing A, Alumni House, besides University Guest House, Opp. Kamati Baug Water Tank, University Road. Dates: November 20-24. Timings: 5 to 6:00 pm. Entry free. Chandrashekhar Patil, 98243 72414
- Contemporary Art and Traditional Craft: A very good collection of artworks – paintings, prints, sculptures – in a variety of media, traditional crafts in terracotta and clay, and masks made by artisans will be on display. Venue: Reliance Art Center, Near Gokul Guest House, Sector 1, RIL Township (PT), Gorwa-Refinery Road. Dates: November 24-26. Timings: 2 to 6 pm. Entry free. Bakulesh Joshi, 9925096426
II. Home Museums: We generally associate museums with large, vast spaces, generally government-funded, housing all kinds of wonderful and strange things – artworks, textiles, taxidermied animals and birds, manuscripts, fossils, historical artefacts, antiques and so on that tell us all kinds of stories about our past. On the other hand, home museums are housed in people’s homes, showcasing a fascinating array of products that they have a passion for and have painstakingly collected over a number of years. Since these are not public spaces, ‘home museums’ are open only when their collectors want to share their passion with others. So take this opportunity!
- A Collection of Water Pots of all materials, shapes and sizes: Totally new display! At the home of Smt. and Shri Atulbhai Shah, Pen Point (first floor), Kothi Char Rasta. Dates: November 18-25. Time: 11 am to 7.30 pm, every day. Entry free. Atulbhai: 98797 86456
- A Collection of Paintings on Mahatma Gandhi’s Dandi Yatra: At the home of Smt. and Shri Atulbhai Shah, Pen Point (first floor), Kothi Char Rasta. Dates: November 18-25. Time: 11 am to 7.30 pm, every day. Entry free. Atulbhai: 98797 86456
- A Collection of Moti Toran, traditional Lamps, Paan Peti, and Vintage Books: At the home of Shri Manubhai Nirmal, at 1, Devashya Flats, ground floor, 25-A, Shrinagar Society, Opp.SBI Bank, BPC Road, near Gai (Cow) Circle, Akota. Dates: November 18-25. Time: 4 to 7.30 pm, every day. Entry free. Nirmalbhai: 98244 66939
- A Collection of Spoons: At the home of Umesh A. Suratkar at Sona Building , Opp. Badamdi Baug, Shankar Tekari, Dandiya Bazar. Dates: November 18-25. Timings: 3:00 to 6:00 pm, every day. Entry free. Umesh A Suratkar: 9825660779
- A Collection of Children’s Wheeled Toys (1-12 years): At the Factory of Shri Trushar Rana at 7, Haribhakti Estate, Near Yamuna Mill, Beside HP Petrol Pump, Dabhoi Road. Dates: November 18-25. Timings: 9:30 am to 5:30 pm, every day. Entry free. Contact: Trushar Rana 9825125196.
- A Collection of Unique Inkpots: At the home of Roshani Kiran Shah, behind Jain Upashraya, Kothi Pol, Raopura. Dates: November 18-25. Timings: 11:00 am to 8:00 pm, every day. Entry free. Contact: Roshani Shah on 9426763310.
III. Heritage and Nature Walks: Walking through historical or old parts of the city is always a fun-filled exercise, especially when accompanied by a well-informed guide, who can open up layers of the city’s past. This gives the ‘walker’ a new perspective about the city they live in or are visiting, and understand why it is important to conserve certain buildings and monuments and green areas that have played a critical role in shaping the city and its inhabitants.
- Sayaji Baug and its Trees: Join botanist Dr. Jitendra Gavli, on an information-filled Walk through the city’s most-loved Sayaji Baug, and understand what the trees planted there stand for, where they come from, and how they fruit and flower. The Walk will be held on Saturday, November 18, beginning at 7 am sharp from the Band Stand. Group size is limited so book early. Call Dr. Gavli on 97258 91033. Entry: Free
- The University Walk: The M S University campus is home to some of the most beautiful heritage buildings in Baroda. Take this Walk with Chandrasekhar Patil and know more about this wonderful, green campus at the heart of Baroda city. On Sunday, November 19. Begins from the D N Hall, Pratapgunj. 7 to 9.30 am. Parking at the cricket ground. Carry a water bottle and dry snack. Comfortable footwear. Rs. 150.00 per person. Limited to 30 persons. Book with Sandhya on firstname.lastname@example.org A Heritage Trust event.
- The Kalabhavan Walk: The M S University campus’ city wing has a long and interesting history. Know all about it from Chandrashekhar Patil as he takes you not just around the campus but Dandia Bazaar as well. On Monday, November 20. Begins at Kirti Stambh. 7 to 9.30 am. Parking at Kirti Stambh. Carry a water bottle and dry snack. Comfortable footwear. Rs. 150.00 per person. Limited to 30 persons. Book with Sandhya on email@example.com A Heritage Trust event.
- The Kirti Mandir Walk: A Walk touching some of the little-known heritage buildings, temples, bridges, chattris, ghats and so on. Explore them with Chandrasekhar Patil on Thursday, November 23. Walk begins from the Dutta Mandir in the Kirti Mandir complex. Parking at Kirti Mandir. 7 to 9.30 am. Carry a water bottle and dry snack. Comfortable footwear. Rs. 150.00 per person. Limited to 30 persons. Book with Sandhya on firstname.lastname@example.org A Heritage Trust event.
- Heritage Munch: Two gastronomic Walks, tracking timeless treasure of tasty treats led by Food Critic, Adil Marawala to explore the traditional and popular street and off-the-street foods offered in Vadodara for years. The first one is Fatehgunj Fiesta: Sample spicy samosas, Goan bakery tour, munch into memorable hot-dogs, savour Tawa-seekh delights, and top it off with Batli lemon soda! On Thursday, November 23; the second is Mangalbazaar MagicMaze: Discover all-time favourite snacks in the busy shopping lanes and bylanes of Mangal Bazaar and Leheripura, on Friday, November 24. Both Walks will begin at 6.45 pm every evening and end around 8.30 pm. Registration is compulsory on a first-come-first-served basis and group size is limited to 12, maximum to 15. Register with name, contact phone number and Walk interested in with date at email@example.com. The Walk involves food tasting at 4 to 7 places per Walk so each Walker will contribute Rs. 250 per person at the beginning of the Walk on a sharing basis. Adil will share details regarding meeting point, etc.
- Nature + Heritage Walk: Wadhwana-Dabhoi-Bilapur: We begin this Walk with a drive to Wadhwana to spot the winter migratory birds here with ace ‘birder’ Avi Sabawala. Then drive to Dabhoi for some breakfast and lots of heritage building watching at the Dabhoi Fort and Hira Baghol Darwaza and other gates of this ancient town with Chandrashekhar Patil as the guide. Then a drive to nearby Bilapur for some more heritage watching. Registration is MUST for this Drive-Walk. Rs. 500 per Walk inclusive of breakfast and lunch. If there are 40 persons we will hire a bus for more convenience and saving of time. If not, then car-pooling is the only solution. On Sunday, November 26, 6.30 am sharp, start from Vadodara from Amitnagar Circle, return by 3.00 pm. Register on email at firstname.lastname@example.org and please indicate whether your car is available for car-pooling if you are driving. A Heritage Trust event.
- Ashta Ganesha Temple Tour: There are 8 ancient Ganesha temples in the city but they are at quite a distance from each other. However we have a heritage volunteer and guide, Shri Jamdar, who drives his own auto rickshaw, and will lead the tour, explaining the sites as well as he can. His rickshaw will seat 3 persons comfortably and with an average of 10-15 minute halt at each temple, this tour will take about 2 hours. Please register with Shri Jamdar on 9898395989 and finalise the charges per person as well as pick up and drop off points.
- Navnath Temple Tour: There are 9 ancient Shiva temples in the city. Heritage volunteer and guide, Shri Jamdar, who drives his own autorickshaw, will lead the tour, explaining the importance of each temple. His rickshaw will seat 3 persons comfortably and with an average of 10-15 minute halt at each temple, this tour will take about 2 hours. Please register with Shri Jamdar on 9898395989 and finalise the charges per person as well as pick up and drop off points.
- Baroda Heritage Buildings Tour: There are numerous historical buildings in the city that belong to different eras, reflecting the fashion introduced by different rulers. Heritage volunteer and guide, Shri Jamdar, who drives his own auto rickshaw, will lead the tour, covering 15 buildings and explaining the importance of each building. His rickshaw will seat 3 persons comfortably and with an average of 7-10 minute halt at each site, this tour will take about 2 hours. Please register with Shri Jamdar on 9898395989 and finalise the charges per person as well as pick up and drop off points.
IV. Talks and Lectures: What is a Heritage Week without some wonderful people make exciting presentations about their work in heritage?
- “World Heritage City Inscription: The Ahmedabad Experience” by Rabindra Vasavada, Head, Ahmedabad UNESCO World Heritage City Dossier, at 6 pm on Saturday, November 18 at the Auditorium, Baroda Medical College, SSG Hospital. Organised by The Indian Institute of Architects, Baroda Chapter, and supported by INTACH, and the Dept of Architecture, M S University. Entry free. Open to all.
- Viraasat Lecture Series: Dr. Gauri Parimoo Krishnan will speak on “Heritage, Diversity and Identity: The Making of Singapore’s Indian Heritage Centre; and Dr. Tsewang Namgail will speak on “Preserving the Natural and Cultural Heritage of Ladakh and the Home Stay Program” at 5 pm onwards, Hotel Grand Mercure Surya Palace, Sayaji Gunj, on Saturday, November 25. Entry free. A Heritage Trust event.
- Illustrated Talk on Painter Rao Bahadur N V Dhurandhar painter and Sculptor Rao Bahadur G K Mhatre, the two pillars of the Bombay Art School with special reference to Baroda State, by art historian Sandeep Dahisarkar from Mumbai. At the Fine Arts Faculty Auditorium at 11 am on Monday, November 20, entry free, open to all.
V. Miscellaneous Add-ons: Here’s a list of places that stock up on things related to Baroda’s heritage. They can be accessed through the year.
- Vadodara Souvenir Shop, near Band Stand Gate, Kamati Baug, opp. MRID College. T-shirts, Coffee Mugs, Wooden Plates and Boxes, Cans, Caps, etc. Open from 7.30 am to 12 noon and 5 to 8 pm in the evening. Amita Sarkar, details from 9825512819.
- Heritage Trust: Coffee Table Books on Baroda and Champaner. “Once Upon a Time … there was Baroda” written by Rani Dharkar and with photographs by Rahul Gajjar, Rs. 3000. “The Myths and Legends of Champaner-Pavagadh” written by Sonal Mithal Modi, with illustrations by Jaidev Thakore and photographs by Rahul Gajjar, Rs. 2000. Send an email to email@example.com, with details regarding which book you want, number of copies, address and phone number. Payment by cheque in favour of Heritage Trust.